Research and development on agricultural productivity is grappling with the growing demand for food. The key challenge is how to increase food production to feed an ever growing population, while at the same time decreasing the negative environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. This challenge requires sustainable transformations in the entire food value chain system. Thus, several development partners have proposed ‘sustainable intensification’ (SI), as a potential approach to enhance agricultural productivity. The approach has been widely promoted to increase food production from existing farmlands, in ways that do not overexploit the environment. Within this context, sustainable intensification is a system through which agricultural yields are increased to sufficiently improve food, nutrition, and income security, particularly for women and children, and at the same time conserve or enhance the natural resource base.